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At the dawn of space aeronautics in the 20th century, three organizations were established in Japan: The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), which was devoted to space and planetary research; the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL), which focused on research and development of next-generation aviation; and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), which was responsible for development of large-size launch vehicles, as represented by H-IIA, satellites, and the International Space Station. In the 21st century, space development is no longer a dream but a very important mission for the benefit of our economic growth, our quality of life, our security, and the continuous progress of humankind. We now know that the study and exploration of space has a direct impact on our lives. On October 1, 2003, ISAS, NAL and NASDA were merged into one independent administrative institution: the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The consolidation of these three formerly independent organizations will allow a continuous and systematic approach to space exploration, from basic research to development and practical application. This also means that the best of Japan's advanced modern aerospace technologies are gathered together - a concentration of technologies that is expected to create new energy to propel Japan's efforts challenges to space. The new organization is also facing the challenge of meeting the aims of administrative reform. We are willing to tackle that too, by improving efficiency and raising staff consciousness. As a leading industrial nation, Japan is responsible for taking the initiative in the creation of scientific knowledge. JAXA endeavors to add a new page to the history of aerospace development, putting Japan on the same footing as other space-technology advanced nations.